How Should the First Care of a Newborn Baby be Performed?
Wash Your Hands
Children's quality of life is basically closely related to whether their needs are met or not. It is the duty of families and caregivers to meet the basic care needs of 0-36 months old children. Hygiene practices are at the top of the maintenance needs. Basically, hygiene practices consist of appropriate hand washing, regular cleaning and disinfection practices. Always wash your hands before touching your baby, before and after care (baby's diaper change, bath, etc.), before feeding the baby.
What are the First Needs of a Newborn Baby?
Maintaining Body Temperature
In newborn babies, adipose tissue that maintains body temperature is lacking. Wet body of the baby can cause heat loss. For this reason, it should be dried immediately with a pre-warmed cotton blanket (heated at room temperature, be careful not to be hot), and wrapped in a new cotton blanket, after a few minutes, clothes heated at room temperature should be worn. Heat loss occurs most from the beginning. Headgear must be dressed. Reddening of the baby's face indicates an increase in body temperature, and a pale or purplish body temperature indicates a decrease in body temperature.
The first feeding is done within the first half an hour to one hour after birth. The frequency of breastfeeding should be adjusted according to the baby's wishes. No food, including water, should be given other than breast milk. The milk (colostrum) secreted in the first days is very important. To have a healthy baby in every respect, give your baby ONLY MOTHER MILK FOR THE FIRST 6 MONTHS. Breast milk; It is a natural food that is easy to digest and contains all the fluid, energy and nutrients necessary for the growth and development of the newborn baby. Breastmilk and breastfeeding have many benefits for both the baby and the mother, especially in nutrition, health, immunity, developmental, psychological, social and economic aspects. The special milk of every living thing for itself and its baby is what makes breastmilk a unique nutrient for its offspring. The fact that the baby is born prematurely or on time does not change the criteria for the mother's milk to be suitable for her. Therefore, in the first six months of life, no other nutrient other than breast milk is recommended for the baby.
What are the Benefits of Breast Milk for Baby?
- It is the most suitable food for the mental and body health of the baby.
- It is always ready, clean, at the appropriate temperature, and economical.
- It is the easiest nutrient to digest.
- Each mother's milk is the most suitable for her baby. The milk of the mother with a premature baby is for the premature baby, the milk of the mother with a 1 month old baby is for the 1 month old baby, and the milk of the mother with a 3 month old baby is for the 3 month old baby.
- Since it contains growth factors that regulate the development of organs and systems, it accelerates the growth and development of the baby.
- Breast milk provides protein, fat, etc. that the baby needs in the first 6 months. It has all kinds of nutritional value. For this reason, it does not need any additional nutrients, additional liquids or vitamins other than vitamin D and fluorine.
- The risk of being overweight (obesity) is less.
- The mother's first milk (colostrum) is very important for the baby, it is the baby's first vaccine.
- It protects the baby against infections thanks to the white blood cells and preservatives it contains.
- Breast milk prevents the formation of microorganisms that cause diarrhea.
- Anemia is less in babies fed with breast milk.
- It also reduces the possibility of diseases that may develop in advanced ages. For example; allergic diseases, diabetes, asthma, cancer, arteriosclerosis, dental caries, etc.
- It protects against eye diseases with the vitamin A it contains.
- Diaper rash, abdominal pain and constipation are less common in babies who are breastfed.
- It reduces the risk of sudden infant death (crib death).
- It is a natural sedative for the baby.
- Breastfed babies cry less and sleep better.
- With breastfeeding, the emotional bond between mother and baby develops.
- It makes your baby's intelligence development better.
What Are the Benefits of Breastfeeding for Mother?
- Postpartum bleeding stops quickly with early breastfeeding.
- There is no swelling and inflammation in the breasts, the mother passes the postpartum period more comfortably / smoothly.
- It allows the uterus to return to normal in a shorter time.
- Thanks to the hormones secreted by absorption, the need for rest is met in a short time. It gives peace.
- Breastfeeding mothers have a lower risk of developing breast and uterine cancer.
- It reduces the risk of hip bone fracture after menopause, as it enables the bones to regain mineral after childbirth.
Breastfeeding is the Best Way of Love and Commitment
Breastfeeding starts in the first half hour after birth. In the first 1-3 days, the amount of your milk will be small, dark yellow in color and dark in consistency. This milk is called colostrum. The milk that comes immediately after birth is called colostrum. Content of colostrum; It protects against infection and is rich in vitamins A and E. It provides bowel movements and makes the first poop (meconium). It prevents yellowness.
What is the Breastfeeding Technique?
Wash your hands before breastfeeding.
Hold it on your lap so as to make eye contact with your baby.
Bring your baby closer to your chest.
Make sure that your baby's whole body is at the same level and facing the mother's body.
Sitting in a comfortable position makes it easier for the baby to suck.
If necessary, use back and arm supports. If you want to raise your feet, you can use a foot stand.
Your baby; You can breastfeed in a hug, underarm or lying position. While supporting the breast, your fingers should not be on the dark part of the breast. The four fingers of your hand should be supported under the breast. Scissoring (squeezing the breast with two fingers) should not be done. It prevents milk flow.
Getting started with breastfeeding
Baby's mouth wide open
The baby should take most of the dark colored part of your breast (areola) into their mouth.
Your baby's chin should touch the breast. Wrong position; It causes nipple sores, weight loss and decreased milk production because the baby cannot be fed.
Does Your Baby Not Open His Mouth When You Are In Your Arms and Eyes?
Take a drop of milk from your nipple, use the nipple to touch your baby's lips and around the mouth. Your baby will open its mouth. While supporting the breast, your fingers should not be on the dark part of the breast. The four fingers of your hand should be supported under the breast. With these fingers, you can also support your baby's chin and make him less tired.
Your twin babies should be supported to breastfeed at the same time during their first weeks.
Breastfeeding alone can be difficult in the first weeks, and your family can support it.
What is the Frequency of Urine and Stool?
Your baby should urinate 6-8 times a day on average. This indicates that nutrition is sufficient. It is normal for your baby to defecate 6-8 times in the first days. The stool is greenish and runny in the first days and becomes yellow in the following days. The stool of babies fed with formula is thick and less frequent.
Babies' skin is sensitive. For this, you need to use products suitable for babies' skin. We recommend that you wash your baby with warm, clear water after pooping in your baby's child care at home.
* Items such as hand disinfectants and alcohol-containing cleaning products can harm your baby's skin.
* Do not use disinfectants.
How to Apply Sub-Care?
- Prepare your ingredients in advance.
- Wash your hands.
- Before opening your baby's dirty diaper, place a sheet or a cover on the bottom opening bed. Take the cloth from top to bottom, slightly underneath. Close your baby's dirty diaper with its tapes and throw it away.
- Do the cleaning by wiping with light movements from top to bottom.
- After cleansing, you can use diaper rash cream suitable for your skin.
- Apply the diaper rash cream to the skin without applying it intensively (leaving no residue).
- Wash your hands after changing your baby's diaper.
- When your baby is in the diaper change unit, never turn around and do not walk away from it.
- Protect your baby against falls.
How Important Is Sleep in Newborn Babies?
One of the baby's daily needs is sleep. It may take time to maintain sleep patterns. Babies need sleep to maintain their energy, except during feeding times. In the first days, you may need to be awakened and fed every 2-3 hours. To awaken; You can pat the back with gentle movements, open the clothes, and make soft touches around the mouth with your fingers. You may notice longer sleep times after two weeks. When they are three months old, they reduce their sleep hours to the night and this relaxes the parents. You may cry for a few minutes when you lie down, and calm down when you provide a quiet environment. Be patient for your baby to cry if his bottom is clean, his belly is tox and he does not have any illness. Let him sleep on his own. When babies wake up at night, they do not fall asleep unless they are fed.
Babies can be mobile and prone to crying during their sleep. Wait a few minutes and observe whether they will fall asleep rather than take them in their arms immediately. If he is falling asleep, do not wake unnecessarily. Lay your baby on his back, day or night. You can turn his head slightly to the side so that his head does not straighten. Vomiting may occur when lying down after feeding. Therefore, it is sufficient to position the head slightly to the side. Make sure that the bed is soft and not filled with toys. Also, keep a distance between the head and the headboard. Do not dress your baby in very tight woolen clothes while sleeping, you can wear cotton clothes. It is not suitable for smoking in the room where your baby is staying and in its vicinity. Dress your baby in clothes suitable for the weather. Be careful not to use woolen covers such as blankets. It is not appropriate to swaddle your baby or wrap it up a lot. You can wrap it loosely with light soft covers, but this should not interfere with breathing and movement. Also, you should not increase the room temperature too much. It would be appropriate to dress your baby with one layer more clothes than your own.
How is the Baby Holding Method?
You should support your baby in the first months of the year by supporting the head and trunk. Do not try to fit it. Since the neck muscles do not develop in the first time, you should support the head, neck and buttocks on your lap until you learn to hold it. Over time, you will learn the positions your baby likes.
How to Wash Newborn Babies?
Your baby's skin is covered in the womb with a thin material called Vernix Caseosa, which contains lipids and proteins, 80% of which is water, and which protects the baby. Remember that this white layer on your skin after birth is vernix and protects against heat loss. Vernix develops by spreading in the baby's body and its distribution on the skin surface varies according to gestational age, birth type, birth weight. Since the varnish has an important role in protecting the baby's temperature, creating a barrier against microorganisms and preventing heat-fluid losses, it is recommended that the baby not be washed immediately. The first bath can be done 6 hours after birth. After bathing, the ambient temperature should be kept under control. Bathing should be delayed after 24 hours, especially in babies younger than 36 weeks. Daily bathing is not required. Washing twice a week is recommended for babies. The baby should be bathed before feeding.
Necessary materials for the bathroom
- Two soft towels
- Thermometer showing room temperature
- Degrees for measuring baby's body temperature
- Neutral (pH; 5.5) liquid or mold cleaning products may be preferred for skin cleansing.
- Bathtub full of water with regulated temperature
Make sure to disinfect the bathroom equipment before and after using it.
- Wash your hands.
- Set the room temperature between 26 ° - 27 ° C. Adjust the water height to approximately 5 cm.
- The water temperature should be between 36 ° and 37 ° C. Check the water temperature with the help of a thermometer. (It is stated that water temperature and bathing in a bathtub are effective in preventing heat loss and pleasing babies).
- Pre-warm your towel.
- The baby's body temperature should be 36.5 - 37 ° C. Check with the degree before bathing.
- Take off the baby's clothes.
- Gently support the baby's head and body and slowly submerge it in the prepared water.
- A soft and non-damaging sponge can be used for bathing.
- You can gently wash the eyes from the inside out with the help of a soft eye pad. Use separate pads for both eyes.
- With the help of your hands, pour water from the head to the body.
- Wash the head and face first, and then the body with gentle movements.
- Do not use hard hand touches such as rubbing (friction).
- Bath time should be short (5 minutes).
- Wrap your baby in a pre-warmed soft towel and pat dry. As soon as it is dried, wrap it in a second pre-warmed towel and wait 10 minutes. Dress your baby after drying it thoroughly.
- Do not leave the baby alone during bathing.
- Always support the baby's head and body with your hands during bathing.
- Do not lift the baby up, as water and shampoo will increase slipperiness.
- Do not pour the water too high on the baby.
- At the end of the bath, the borders or covers of the bed in which you take the baby should be closed.
How Should Nail Care Be Used in Newborn Babies?
Your baby's nails are soft but sharp. A newborn baby can rake his own face or yours. You can trim your nails shortly after birth to avoid scratching your face. Since the nails are soft, you can tear off the tip with your fingers. Ideal would be to use baby scissors or small scissors.
- Cut your nails after bathing.
- Perform the cutting process while your baby is asleep.
- Make the nail cut while someone else is holding the baby.
- Cut nails straight and short.
How To Deal With Gas Pain (Colic)?
Although your baby is healthy, he may have colic if he has moods and cries frequently, especially in the evening, or if he cries 3-4 times a day without ever calming down. Colic rises 6 weeks after birth and disappears after 3 months. In this case, mothers and fathers become angry, nervous and anxious. The mother and father should know that this situation will pass after a while. The more comfortable you are, the easier it will be to calm your baby.
When May Not Be Colic?
If unusual crying continues,
If the sound of crying sounds strange,
Decrease in movements, malnutrition, abnormal breathing and abnormal movements,
If you have other symptoms such as vomiting, fever, diarrhea
ALWAYS CONSULT YOUR BABY'S DOCTOR.
How is Massage for Newborn Babies?
Massage to your baby is an effective method of relaxing and establishing the bond between you. While applying moisturizer to your baby, you can make small touches with your fingertips. You should massage your belly from right to left, without depressing it. You can start exercising from the 3rd month of your baby. If your baby is uncomfortable with the massage, leave it. If you are nervous and your baby is cranky, do not massage.
Love and Care
As soon as your baby is born, he asks you to hold him, hug him, touch him, kiss him, talk to him and sing. These are methods that increase love, affection, and commitment. It also helps the baby's brain development. The baby needs physical, emotional and mental development. Talking, explaining what you do, reading and singing while caring for your baby plays a vital role in its development. Let your baby watch your face. Take care of your baby only, especially when breastfeeding. Establish a certain order, repetitive situations allow your baby to get used to the environment and you easily.